Islamic Azad University
At Central Tehran
Faculty of Foreign Languages
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (TEFL)
The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies, Reading Strategies, and Reading Comprehension
Dr. ABDOLLAH BARADARAN
Dr. MANIA NOSRATINIA
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The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship among EFL learners’ use of learning strategies, reading strategies, and reading comprehension. To fulfill this objective, 150 female EFL learners, between 25 and 42 years old, who were selected randomly from amongst those who were attending in upper-intermediate level of Safir language school were asked to take part in a piloted PET reading comprehension test and two questionnaires on Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), and Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS). After discarding incomplete answer sheets, the acceptable cases were used in statistical analysis.
At first the PET was piloted and it was declared that it was reliable. Then the results from the main administration were analyzed to exclude the descriptive data; it showed that there was no skewness in the results. The next step was to test the hypotheses; in this regards, Pearson’s product moment correlation was applied and the outcome showed that the three hypotheses were rejected.
After analyzing the results it was concluded that the use of reading strategies has positive effect (r=0.93) on learners’ learning. Also it was shown that using learning strategies has a positive effect (r=0.61) on learners’ reading comprehension; construing that the reading strategies and language learning strategies have positive and high correlation with learners’ comprehension.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Statement of the Research Questions 6
1.4 Statement of the Research Hypotheses 7
1.5 Definition of Key Terms 7
1.5.1 Learning Strategies 7
1.5.2 Reading Comprehension 8
1.5.3 Reading Strategies 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Limitations and Delimitations 11
1.7.1 Limitations 11
1.7.2 Delimitations 12
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 13
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Language Learning Strategies 14
2.2.1 Categories of Language Learning Strategies 15
2.2.2 Language Learning and Strategy use 17
2.3 Reading 21
2.3.1 Types of Reading 22
2.3.2 Components of Reading 23
2.4 Reading Comprehension 25
2.4.1 Theories of Reading Comprehension 26
2.4.2 Definitions of Reading Comprehension 27
2.4.3 Categories of Reading Comprehension 28
2.5 Reading Strategies 29
2.5.1 Definitions of Reading Strategies 31
2.5.2 Categories of Reading Strategies 32
2.5.3 Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension 33
CHAPTER III: METHOD 36
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Participants 37
3.3 Instrumentations 37
3.3.1 The Language Learning Questionnaire 38
3.3.2 The Reading Strategies Questionnaire 40
3.3.3 Reading Comprehension Test 41
3.4 Procedure 41
3.5 Design 42
3.6 Statistical Analysis 42
CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS OF DATA 43
4.1 Introduction 44
4.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Pilot Study 44
4.3 Descriptive Statistics of the Main Administration 46
4.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of the Language Learning Questionnaire 46
220.127.116.11 Memory Strategies 48
18.104.22.168 Cognitive Strategies 50
22.214.171.124 Compensation Strategies 51
126.96.36.199 Meta-cognitive Strategies 53
188.8.131.52 Affective Strategies 54
184.108.40.206 Social Strategies 56
220.127.116.11 Comparing the SILL’s Categories 57
4.3.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Strategies Questionnaire 59
4.3.3 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Comprehension Test 60
4.4 Testing the Hypotheses 61
4.4.1 Testing the First Hypothesis 62
4.4.2 Testing the Second Hypothesis 62
4.4.3 Testing the Third Hypothesis 63
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS 65
5.1 Introduction 66
5.2 Procedure and Summary of the Findings 66
5.3 Discussion 67
5.4 Pedagogical Implications 69
5.4.1 Implications for EFL Teachers 70
5.4.2 Implications for EFL Learners 71
5.4.3 Implications for Syllabus designers 72
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research 72
Appendix A: Learning Strategies Questionnaire 82
Appendix B: Reading Strategies Questionnaire 84
Appendix C: Reading Comprehension Test 86
List of Tables
Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics of the PET Reading Comprehension Test Piloting 45
Table 4.2: Reliability of the PET Reading Comprehension Test Piloting 45
Table 4.3: Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Questionnaire Administration 47
Table 4.4: Descriptive Statistics of the Memory Strategies 49
Table 4.5: Descriptive Statistics of the Cognitive Strategies 50
Table 4.6: Descriptive Statistics of the Compensation Strategies 52
Table 4.7: Descriptive Statistics of the Meta-cognitive Strategies 53
Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistics of the Affective Strategies 55
Table 4.9: Descriptive Statistics of the Social Strategies 56
Table 4.10: Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Categories Means 58
Table 4.11: Descriptive Statistics of the SORS Questionnaire Administration 59
Table 4.12: Descriptive Statistics of the PET Reading Comprehension
Test Administration 60
Table 4.13: Correlation between Reading Strategies and Reading
Table 4.14: Correlation between Language Learning Strategies and
Reading Comprehension 63
Table 4.15: Correlation between Language Learning Strategies and
Reading Strategies 64
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.1: Score Distribution of the SILL Questionnaire 48
Figure 4.2: Score Distribution of Memory Strategies 50
Figure 4.3: Score Distribution of Cognitive Strategies 51
Figure 4.4: Score Distribution of Compensation Strategies 53
Figure 4.5: Score Distribution of Meta-cognitive Strategies 54
Figure 4.6: Score Distribution of Affective Strategies 56
Figure 4.7: Score Distribution of Social Strategies 57
Figure 4.8: Score Distribution of Compensation Strategies 58
Figure 4.9: Score Distribution of the SORS Questionnaire 60
Figure 4.10: Score Distribution of the PET Questionnaire 61
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Reading is one of the most essential skills for every day interactions; practically, every portion of life comprises reading. Reading includes the activation of relevant knowledge and related language skills to exchange the information from one person to another. In this regard, one has to focus one’s attention on the reading materials and integrate previously obtained knowledge and skills to grasp the things someone else has written (Chastain, 1988).
Reading is similar to listening in that they are both receptive skills, during which readers decode the message of the writer and try to rebuild it (Rashtchi & Keyvanfar, 2010). Indeed, reading can be identified as a negotiation between the reader and the text or between the reader and the author. Throughout such an active participation, the reader tries to either personally decipher the text or recognize the author’s original intention.
It is worth mentioning that in fact, reading does not occur unaccompanied; rather, it always occurs within a social context for a particular motive. People might read a text, such as a manual, to get information on how to do something or how to use something. Besides, they might study textbooks and course books to learn something; Furthermore, they sometimes read the texts such as emails or messages in order to socialize with their friends. People also read the texts related to their daily life, such as reading a map to find the shortest itinerary to a particular destination. Constantly one reads for pleasure; some examples of reading for pleasure include reading a novel or browsing the internet. Finally, under some circumstances, reading might happen for a blend of intentions.
It is always recommended that the readers use reading to increase their general awareness of language as well as their world knowledge; for, reading is a skill that can be accomplished privately on one’s own velocity. Reading skill is far more momentous for EFL learners. It is crucial to a student’s success in school, and further, to becoming a lifelong learner.
Reading is also a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension). Reading is a necessary tool for language acquisition, communication, and sharing information and ideas. It includes a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is affected by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitudes, and language community in cultural and social situations.
Effective reading is not a process that every individual can achieve (Nunan, 1999). Rather, it is difficult to learn, especially for those who want to read texts in a second or foreign language. When learning a foreign language, reading is an essential skill to acquire in order to increase knowledge and exchange information (Chien, 2000; Dlugosz, 2000; Salinger, 2003; Huang, 2005). However, most English instructors still concentrate on correcting the learners’ grammatical mistakes or increasing their vocabulary. To improve learners’ reading abilities, the instructors must wisely consider effective strategies and supportive tools. In contrary, the instructors seldom teach learners how to effectively use learning strategies to improve their reading comprehension; consequently, learners cannot master the language skills effectively (Berkowitz 1986; Carnine and Carnine 2004; Chi, 1997; Griffiths, 2008; Rivard and Yore 1992; Tsao, 2004).
Strategies are defined as specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that students (often deliberately) use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language. They are also tools for the self-directed involvement, which is necessary to develop language skills (Oxford, 1990).
Learner strategies, as one of the most important categories of strategies, are specific attacks that learners make on different problems when receiving input or producing output. One type of strategies used by language learners is learning strategies.
Park (1995) defines learning strategies as “the mental activities that people use when they study to help themselves acquire, organize, or remember incoming knowledge more efficiently” (p. 35).
Also, it is generally accepted that among the strategies, reading strategies are one of the most beneficial ones that any reader can use for ensuring success in reading (Afflerbach, Pearson, and Paris, 2008). They are of interest for what they reveal about the way readers manage their interactions with written text, and how these strategies are related to reading comprehension (Carrell, Pharis, &Liberto, 1989). Emphasizing on the key role of reading strategies, Afflerbach, Pearson, and Paris (2008) characterize them as “deliberate, goal directed attempts to control and modify the reader’s efforts to decode text, understand word, and construct meanings out of text” (p. 15). These strategies range from simple fix-up strategies such as simply rereading difficult segments and guessing the meaning of an unknown word from context, to more comprehensive strategies such as summarizing and relating what is being read to the reader’s background knowledge (Janzen, 1996).
Taking the role of all mentioned strategies into consideration, each of these could be just as a piece of the puzzle. The correlation between reading comprehension as a target and any of these strategies on the one hand and the relationships between each pair of them on the other hand can provide us a more holistic yet precise approach toward reading.
تعداد صفحه : 103
قیمت :14700 تومان
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